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Wednesday, 24 October 2012 18:11

Regional Approach- Municipal Solid Waste Management

Written by  Dr Amiya Kumar Sahu

Example of Regional Disposal Facility

Regional landfills are being used not only in developed countries such as the United States, the United Kingdom, Germany, Sweden, and Poland, but also in developing countries such as Argentina, Brazil, Mexico, Palestine, and Egypt. In India, the approach is being adopted in the states of Gujarat, West Bengal, and Andhra Pradesh; others, such as Tamil Nadu, Kerala, and Maharashtra are also considering adopting this approach.

National

West Bengal

The Government of West Bengal constituted a Solid Waste Management Mission in the form of a registered society named as West Bengal Solid Waste Management Mission. (WBSWMM) To promote, facilitate and advise on scientifically-sound and technologically proven solid waste management by the municipal bodies

The Asansol urban area, consisting of the Asansol Municipal Corporation (AMC), Durgapur Municipal Corporation (DMC), and the municipalities of Ranigunj, Jamuria and Kulti is one of the most rapidly urbanizing centers of West Bengal. Selected as a mission city under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), the issue of managing municipal solid wastes was a prime concern in the area. Under the nodal role of Asansol Durgapur Development

Authority (ADDA) a project was conceived with the help of USFIRD and IDFC to develop a regional engineered land fill facility. Public Private Partnership was formed for implementation of the project.

 

Maharashtra

Municipal Council of Navghar Manickpur, Vasai, Virar and Nala Sopara come together and constitue a corporation and private service provider was involved on the BOT terms

 

Gujarat: Regional landfill facility at AUDA

Ahmadabad urban development Authority clubbed together 12 municipalities situated around the city of Ahmadabad, Chandkheda, Kali, Ranip, Chandlodiya, Ghatlodiya, Memnagar, Jodhpur, Vejalpur, sarkhej, Thaltej,Bodakdev and Vastrapur and created a common regional facility for integrated treatment and disposal of waste.

 

Kerala: six regional Engineered landfill (ELF) are proposed for the 14 districts and one regional engineered landfill facility has been initiated

International

New Zealand: Canterbury Regional Landfill In the Canterbury region six Councils have come together to develop a modern, high standard waste disposal facility ,instead for each local authority working within its own boundaries and formed the joint venture with Private waste companies.

 

Chile: In the area of Capital (Santiago), 16 municipalities joined to form an informal association for the purpose of waste disposal, and engage a private company to construct and operate one sanitary landfill. All municipalities signed the concession agreement.

 

Spokane, United state: The Spokane Regional Solid Waste System (System) was created by Inter-local Agreement between Spokane County and the City of Spokane All the ten existing regional cities and towns, as well as Fairchild Air Force Base, subsequently joined the System by executing inter-local agreements with the City and County of Spokane. The system operates as a department of the City of Spokane’s government, and manages solid waste facilities and contracts for the benefit of all citizens residing in Spokane County.

 

England: Counties (usually incorporating atleast one city, several towns and numerous rural districts) are responsible for arranging and monitoring waste disposal, and invite bids from private companies for waste disposal facilities, several communities may use one landfill and several landfill sites may be used by each of the larger counties waste from one county may be land filled in a neighboring county.    

 Success Story

ASANSOL West Bengal-India

The Asansol urban area, consisting of the Asansol Municipal Corporation (AMC), Durgapur Municipal Corporation (DMC), and the municipalities of Ranigunj, Jamuria and Kulti is one of the most rapidly urbanizing centres of West Bengal. Selected as a mission city under the Jawaharlal Nehru National Urban Renewal Mission (JNNURM), the issue of managing municipal solid wastes was a prime concern in the area. Under the nodal role of Asansol Durgapur Development Authority (ADDA), a project was conceived with the help of USFIRD and IDFC to develop a regional engineered land fill facility. Considering that the waste generated in the region is about 700 tons per day, it was decided that, three processing plants would be set up. The first, at Durgapur, to cater to Durgapur town. The second, at Asansol, to meet the needs of AMC and Kulti, and the third at Mangalpur for Jamuria and Ranigunj. Since a fair amount of land was available with ADDA at Mangalpur, it was decided that the landfill facility would be built here. Adding to this was the fact that the land available was actually an open-cast mine pit, that has been abandoned. Since the land is degraded and cannot be put to any other use due to its depth, it was found suitable to form a land fill. Public Private Partnership model was used to implement this project.

The project has three components.

Collection and transportation of solid waste: 30% of the amount required for this process is being contributed by the ULBs themselves. Various equipment has been bought by the ULBs. These include bins, tri-cycle vans, dumpers, dumper placers etc. The ULBs have distributed 2 coloured bins to each household.

Processing of solid waste: The ULBs will deposit the MSW collected by them to their designated processing plants. These plants are equipped with technology to segregate waste into dry and wet, as well as bio-degradable and non-bio degradable. The plants would produce compost, fuel blocks, plastic pellets, sand/bricks, which it would market.

Landfill:

The MSW rules are very specific regarding the structure of the landfill. Any landfill has to be lined with a specified quality of clay, geo textile and HDPE liner. A system of leachate collection has to be in place. Once the landfill is full, an arrangement for capping is to be made. Since the processing is thorough, it is expected that the land fillable waste would produce very little leachate and methane and other gases. Arrangements for disposal of both are being made.

The process of selection of a private partner was on the basis of efficiency of waste processing, scientific management of landfill, and other such parameters. Gujrat Enviro Protection Infrastructure Ltd and Hanjer Biotech Ltd were selected. The bid was at Rs. 85 per ton of Municipal Solid waste provided. The private partner would be responsible for transporting the residual waste to the landfill. It is expected hat about 25% of the waste collected would have to be land filled. The MOU has been signed on 23.12.2008 and land handed over to them.

The concession period is for 25 years and the private partner will operate on a Built Own Operate Transfer (BOOT) basis. The ULBs have signed an agreement amongst themselves and with ADDA (nodal Agency) to assure the supply of 350 tons per day of waste to the processing facilities. The Municipal Solid waste management project of AUA is unique in that it is the first engineered landfill facility in the state. The ULBs have also started collecting user charges ranging from Rs 5 to Rs 25 per month per household and from Rs 25 to Rs 50 in commercial areas. Larger units like hotels, shopping complexes etc are being charged up to Rs 4000 a month thus the project is a self-sustaining venture.

The Canterbury Landfill Project New Zealand

Six Councils joined together to develop one modern, high standard waste disposal facility to accommodate most of Canterbury’s solid waste. Waste companies were invited to regional waste disposal solution which would meet the Councils’ and community’s objectives. Two firms Waste Management NZ Ltd and Enviro waste Services Ltd, participated in a joint venture with the Councils. The two companies subsequently agreed between themselves to set up a new joint venture company (Canterbury Waste Services Limited - CWS) to participate in the joint venture with the Councils. The MOU between the new joint venture company, Transwaste Canterbury Ltd (TCL) and the Councils was provided. Also, half of the shares in the company were owned by the six participating local authorities, and half by CWS (Canterbury Waste Services).

 

dis03

TCL has selected, consented, built and now owns the Kate Valley Landfill. It is responsible for the collection and transport of residual waste from all transfer stations that supply waste directly to the landfill. TCL sets the gate charges at the landfill.

Each participating Council, as transfer station owners (and any other suppliers of waste to the landfill), must ensure the waste going to landfill meets TCL’s waste acceptance criteria, and that waste is loaded in an appropriate way to meet safety and efficiency requirements.

Success of Joint Venture Canterbury Landfill Project:

  • A successful joint approach by (originally) six (now five) territorial Councils to establish and operate a major facility for waste disposal for a large part of the Canterbury region, in ways which optimize the achievement of Council and community objectives.
  • A successful public – private joint venture which achieves fundamental commercial objectives without compromising Council and community requirements, including fair pricing in a regional monopoly environment.
  • A robust process in the establishment of the Kate Valley Landfill which preserves options for increased diversion from landfill, and for an alternative method of waste disposal should one become available which at least equals the Kate Valley facility in both economic and environmental protection terms.
  • The establishment of a high quality long term waste disposal facility which meets Council and community expectations and world best practice standards of service and environmental security.
  • It is also evident that the financial performance of the company is satisfactory, and that it will earn its required rate of return and provide the desired dividend levels to its shareholders within a reasonable period following commencement.
  • The necessary increase in gate charges has been absorbed by the community without any significant protest or effect.
  • There have been no significant consent compliance issues, environmental incidents or operational problems.


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